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Parents and other caregivers can help children express themselves
through telling stories. When children tell stories, they often use other
people or animals to represent their feelings, concerns, or fears. This is
called symbolic language, and it lets the child express these emotions without
talking directly about himself or herself. Any character in the story could
represent the child's feelings.
A child telling a story may not be aware that he or she is using
symbolic language. But the adult may recognize this and can then use the
story to talk about the child's feelings. For example, a child may not be able
to talk about being angry because of separation from one or both parents, but
the child may be able to tell a story about an animal that was very upset when
left behind by its family. In this way, the child can talk about his or her
anger without feeling guilty or ashamed.
Use the situations and characters in the child's story to help him or
her deal with feelings, fears, and concerns:
Follow these steps when using storytelling to help a child deal with
After you make up a story with a child, spend some time thinking
about the activity. What was the story about? What was its theme? Were the
characters in the story angry, scared, happy, or sad? Take some notes about the
story if you think it will help you.
Now ask yourself if there is a way that you can retell the story to
help the child work through his or her feelings. Always use the same situations
and characters that the child used. You can use the same plot and sequence of
events at first, then change the ending of the story. For example, if the child
told a story about an animal who was lost in the woods and could not find its
way home, the child may be talking symbolically about feeling alone, unsure,
lost, and isolated. You can retell the story, describing how sad the animal was
when it was lost. You can then add how the animal was found and invited to a
party where it was given a favorite food to eat.
Observe the child's reaction and see if your ending was acceptable to
the child. If the child does not like your ending, he or she may not be ready
to move on and may need to tell more stories with that same theme.
You and the child can also draw pictures to tell stories. Drawing
pictures may reduce the child's discomfort with talking. Drawing pictures may
also provide additional information about how the child is feeling.
Current as of:
November 4, 2013
Anne C. Poinier, MD - Internal Medicine & Sidney Zisook, MD - Psychiatry
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