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pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a lung infection caused by viruses found in the saliva, urine, and droppings of
some rodents. The illness is rare but can be
The first known outbreak of HPS in the United States occurred in 1993. Most of the U.S. cases have happened during the spring and summer in the Southwest.
Most cases of HPS in the U.S. are
caused by one type of hantavirus found in the deer mouse. People can become
North America has never had a known case of one person spreading the illness to another. And people do
not get HPS from farm animals, pets, or insects. But your pet may bring home an
Symptoms usually start 2 to 3 weeks after
a person has been exposed to the virus. Early symptoms may include:
You quickly will become very sick. Within a few days, you'll start to have more serious symptoms, such as:
After a person with HPS starts having
trouble breathing, he or she may die within hours. Most deaths occur within 1 to 2 days after severe breathing problems begin. About 4 out of 10
people who get HPS do not survive.footnote 1
will do a physical exam and ask you questions about your symptoms, past
health, and exposure to rodents. You may have other tests, such as chest X-rays, a
complete blood count, and an
oxygen saturation test.
Your doctor will know for sure
that you have HPS only if you have the signs of HPS and if tests show that the
virus is or has been in your blood or tissues.
HPS requires treatment in a hospital right away, even if the case is mild. You will get treatment
to support you through the illness, such as intravenous (IV) fluids and medicines. You may need a ventilator to help you breathe.
People who survive the
illness usually recover quickly. Most are able to leave the hospital after 7
The best way to prevent
hantavirus infection is to avoid contact with rodents and their
droppings. If you live in or visit an area where the viruses have been
Learning about hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS):
National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Reported cases of HPS. Hantaviruses. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/surveillance/index.html.
Other Works Consulted
American Academy of Pediatrics (2015). Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. In DW Kimberlin et al., eds., Red Book: 2015 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 30th ed., pp. 376–379. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.
American Public Health Association (2008). Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. In DL Heyman, ed., Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 19th ed., pp. 273–274. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Hantavirus. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/hps/index.html.
National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Technical/clinical information. Hantavirus. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/technical/index.html.
Peters CJ (2010). California encephalitis, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and Bunyavirid hemorrhagic fevers. In GL Mandell et al., eds., Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed., vol. 2, pp. 2289–2293. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
ByHealthwise StaffPrimary Medical ReviewerE. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal MedicineSpecialist Medical ReviewerRobert L. Cowie, MB, FCP(SA), MD, MSc, MFOM - Pulmonology
Current as ofJuly 31, 2015
Current as of:
July 31, 2015
E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine & Robert L. Cowie, MB, FCP(SA), MD, MSc, MFOM - Pulmonology
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